Going Out in the Montessori Elementary Classroom


If you have an elementary child at a Montessori school or if you spend any time on our socials, you probably have heard or seen the phrase “Going Out”. And does the Montessori lingo never end?! It is probably one of the things students most look forward to about being in elementary.  “I get to go explore outside of the classroom!!” Besides being a lot of fun, these opportunities for Going Out serve many purposes for the elementary-age child. Today, let’s deep dive into one of the most-loved, and perhaps most-unique, aspects of the Montessori Elementary classroom, the Going Out.

Going Out is a critical component of the Montessori Elementary classroom (grades 1-6). The Elementary child is in the 2nd plane of development (age 6-12 years) and therefore has unique proclivities and needs. If you don’t know about Montessori’s planes of development, check out the blog post entitled, “Montessori Theory: The Four Planes of Development”. The rational mind of the 2nd plane child is ready to dive into the “Why” behind everything! Why is the sun warm? Why do we have rules in a community? Why do I have to listen to you? Why does my family make different decisions than yours? In the classroom, the child explores their questions through research, reports and larger projects. The Montessori guide connects the child to materials and books in the classroom to further fuel interests, but they must go beyond the classroom to fully satisfy their need for answers. Going Out provides an opportunity for the child to dive further into the research process by visiting a local museum, zoo, library, and the like, to gain real-world knowledge that could not possibly exist in the classroom. Additionally, the classroom guide might connect the child with an expert in the field for an interview.

A second reason for Going Outs is that the child emerges as a social being in the 2nd plane. In the first plane, the child is experiencing their own personal development (learning to walk, talk, and gaining functional independence), but as they enter the 2nd plane there becomes an acute awareness of the people around them and a desire to relate and to connect. The child becomes fascinated by community dynamics, how to belong, and the expectations and guidelines of each community member. Desire outstrips ability at this early social stage and, at first, the child needs a lot of guidance and support from classroom adults to navigate the misunderstandings and disagreements that naturally arise. The social neophyte requires experience in the real world to witness civil adult interaction and to practice taking part in their culture. The child needs opportunities to pay at a cash register, ask for help from the librarian or store clerk, navigate their way around town, and learn the various expectations for behavior in different venues (concert hall vs. basketball stadium). Going Out is a perfect way for our Elementary children to practice how to interact in their society and to develop their emerging social instinct.

Some might say, isn’t Going Out like a field trip? While both experiences take the child outside the classroom, field trips are generally for the whole classroom and are planned by the teacher. For example, the class might attend the symphony or museum exhibit, but those trips are organized and led by adults. Going Out is different in that it is planned and carried out by small groups of students with minimal assistance by the adults. The children gain experience with phone conversations and email correspondence as they plan their Going Out, and they must engage with and navigate their way using maps to find the best route to their location. While at the location, they are responsible for leading the way and communicating with shop owners, docents, etc. Chaperones are present to give support when needed but they allow space for the child to learn from their experience, and even from their mistakes when safe to do so. For example, a chaperone driver will follow directions from the child, even if it means taking a wrong turn, so that the child can have the experience of solving the problem of potentially getting lost.

We are so lucky to have the supportive parent community and staff that expands our ability to take students on Going Outs. These experiences deepen the learning initiated in the classroom and foster the social development of the 2nd plane child.

Dr. Montessori said, “When the child goes out, it is the world itself that offers itself to him. Let us take the child out to show him real things instead of making objects which represent ideas and closing them up in cupboards.”

Objects are important for grasping concepts, and we certainly use them in the elementary Montessori environment, but without connecting them to life outside the classroom, we deprive students of deeper learning and the opportunity to find their place in a wider world.

We Are VdM: Martha Erickson

The very best part of Villa di Maria is our people. Our community of families, faculty and staff is something to be proud of. In this series, We are VdM, we’ll highlight the energies, talents, humor and wisdom of some of our amazing people. Today, we’ll get to know Martha Erickson, our new and wonderful office coordinator. Though the Erickson family is not new to our VdM family (Arthur-Checkerboard, Miles-P3), having Martha on staff this Fall has brought welcome support and efficiency to our admin team! We became acquainted with her many talents and warm personality last year as a floater in several classrooms and we couldn’t be happier to have more of her lovely presence every day this year.

Tell us a bit about your day to day at VdM…

I may arguably have the best position at Villa di Maria. I am fortunate to interact with parents, staff, visitors, and children on a daily basis. You’ll often find me at pick-up and drop-off. If I’m not there, it’s because I’m subbing in one of our magical classrooms. I’m your go-to person for any questions about logistics during the school day and if you have inquiries about admissions or enrollment. I love that I get to connect with every single person on campus!

How did you discover Montessori/VdM? What’s your background?

I graduated college with a degree in Early Childhood and worked as a preschool teacher at New City School from 2009-2015. I had been exposed to the Montessori Method in some of my undergraduate classes, but took a deep dive into the literature after a colleague told me about her past experiences in a Montessori classroom. With each piece of information I’d receive, I became more and more enthralled with Montessori teachings. I feel like I see a clear picture of child development when I look through the lens of Maria Montessori. It has been a wonderful tool as a parent and I’m so grateful my children get to experience this type of education.

What is something you love about the Montessori method?

There are many things I love about the Montessori method. The first thing I love is that it really allows the child to be seen. By that I mean that they are seen for their abilities and those abilities are honored. They are given the chance to progress at their own rate, both socially and academically. Another thing I love about Montessori is that it preserves childhood. In a world that is fast paced, so technologically driven and encourages us to push, push, push, Montessori offers a breather. Children are given time to explore at their own pace. The expectations placed upon them are ones driven from individual observation and careful consideration to their specific plane of development. Specifically at Villa, the campus is a wonderland of possibilities and even better, they are given the TIME to exercise that childhood magic.

What is your favorite thing to do on the weekend?

My favorite thing to do on a weekend is spend time with my family, whether we’re going on a hike, camping, BBQing, going out to dinner, watching a movie or whatever else, as long as we’re together. This is not to say that I also appreciate my alone time very much. You can find me with a book, a yoga mat or my group of close girlfriends and a content expression on my face.

What was your favorite book as a child and why?

Miss Rumphius by Barbara Cooney. I still read it often because it takes me to a beautiful place with a message that inspires me.

What did you want to be when you grew up?

I wanted to be a singer and actor on Broadway!


Thanks for sharing with us, Martha! We’re so glad you’re on the team!

We Are VdM: Shannon O’Connell

The very best part of Villa di Maria is our people. Our community of families, faculty and staff is something to be proud of. In this series, We are VdM, we’ll highlight the energies, talents, humor and wisdom of some of our amazing people. Today, we’ll meet Shannon O’Connell, afternoon assistant in the P1 Children’s House classroom. We are delighted Shannon re-joined our team this Fall! Shannon first worked at VdM as a floater and late stay staff, where she fell in love with the Montessori approach and consequently pursued AMI certification for Primary (ages 3-6 years). She returns to campus with diploma in hand and is a welcome addition to the P1 community!

How did you discover Montessori?

I actually did not know anything about Montessori when I first started working at Villa. I previously was working at School of Rock in Kirkwood where, coincidentally, a lot of VdM families were attending. I have a background in Entertainment and Media Business. I have always worked with children in some capacity as a nanny, swim coach, and working at School of Rock. I wanted to move away from music business and more into working directly with younger children because they make my heart happy. So, I found Villa in 2017 and when I started, I saw a bunch of familiar faces from School of Rock. I started out as a floater and was the lead for Primary/Children’s House late stay. I was subbing for someone who was doing their student teaching for the AMI primary training in P3. While spending time in P3 and seeing Heather/Mrs. Steinman give lessons and seeing the children being so independent made me interested in not only Montessori but doing the AMI training myself. Back in 2019 I attended Silent Journey as a staff member and I was blown away by experiencing the materials the way the children do. I recall telling Robyn that I was applying for AMI training the second I returned home and here I am!
Shannon at the Montessori Training Center in St. Louis.

What is something you love about the Montessori approach?

There are so many things I love about the Montessori approach, but the main thing is that I love that Montessori isn’t only about the academics, it’s about the whole child. As they say in training, we are giving them the keys to the world. It amazes me every single day seeing children achieve functional independence and observing them work on developing their will. I love that Montessori offers grace and courtesy (Grace and Courtesy presentation may include how to greet, how to introduce, how to get the guide’s attention, how to walk around a rug, how to give and receive a present, how to ask someone to observe their work, how to have a polite mealtime conversation etc.). Together, Grace and Courtesy create a human who is socially conscious.

Shannon at the St. Louis Art Museum

What is your favorite thing to do on the weekend?

My absolute favorite thing to do on the weekend is have a picnic on Art Hill and maybe read a book and then go visit my favorite pieces of art at the Art Museum.

What was your favorite book as a child and why?

I was gifted the complete collections of Winnie The Pooh by A. A. Milne as a child and those were my favorites. I loved the adventures that they all went on, looking for Heffalumps or finding replacements for Eeyore’s tail. Eeyore has always been my favorite character of that bunch.

What did you want to be when you grew up?

I wanted to produce television (the next Aaron Spelling) or produce movies. Although I didn’t quite make it to Hollywood, I have become the “go to” person for any video needs from anyone in my family, including my nephew.

Shannon in P1 making bouquets with children

What is a favorite memory/quote from the classroom?

I was lucky enough to do my student teaching in P1 in the Spring. I gave multiple children lessons on word problems and seeing them go back and take them out by themselves was so beautiful. A favorite quote from my student teaching in P1 was “You’re going to make a wonderful teacher someday!” So far, this school year, a child had asked me if they could practice the bow frame and I asked if Mrs. Milos had given them a lesson on it yet and the child replied with “No! You did, Silly!” I thought that was quite hilarious, as I did not remember this moment from student teaching, but I’m glad I’m known for the bow frame as it is definitely my favorite material.
Thanks for letting us get to know you better, Shannon! We are so glad to have you back at VdM!!

Montessori Theory: The Human Tendencies

Today we pick up the thread of our Montessori Theory series we began last spring. In our Theory series, we dive deep into the foundational principles of the Montessori method and look at how these principles are put into practice at school . Today we’ll unpack Montessori’s “Human Tendencies”, why they are important and how they are addressed in the pedagogy.

Montessori education is more than just a philosophy of education. It is preparation for life.

Dr. Maria Montessori sought to understand how to cultivate the greatest potential in human beings. Through extensive observations, Dr. Montessori  noticed that all people possess shared tendencies. What is a tendency? It is a natural urge, an impulse, an inclination that leads without reason or conscious design. We are not always aware of our tendencies but much of human behavior originates as a result of these tendencies. Humans exhibit certain tendencies: order, communication, orientation, exploration, repetition, abstraction, manipulation, work, activity, and exactness. These human tendencies operate within the child to guide her self-construction. These universal human tendencies form a foundation for Montessori’s method of education. An environment and pedagogy that meets these universal needs provides the fertile soil in which a child (or any human!) can flourish.

Let’s explore several of these human tendencies in light of Dr. Montessori’s “vision for life.”


Humans prefer order to chaos. Montessori classrooms create a well-organized, predictable and structured environment to bring order to the child’s mind. A young child, before the age of six, especially thrives in an externally ordered environment. As she seeks to place herself in relationship to the world she needs to find stability, order and continuity. After six-years-old, the child internalizes this order in her mind and needs less external order. The elementary child, rather, seeks foremost to order his mind.


Humans need to communicate with one another in order to survive. It is critical for the development of the child that the guide allows communication in the classroom. In a Montessori environment, children are provided opportunities to develop their communication skills and ultimately they are encouraged to express their thoughts and share what is on their mind with others. Mastery of communication skills is empowering and important. Montessori environments are alive with the natural buzz of language as children collaborate with each other in their work. Montessori environments do not demand silence during a work period because guides recognize the critical importance of communication for a thriving learning community.

Orientation and Exploration

Humans like to know how we fit into our respective world and the various environments in which we find ourselves. Our senses are the key to helping us situate and orient to any space or place. Humans are naturally, endlessly curious beings and desire to explore beyond their borders of land and space. Montessori guides consider this dynamic when new children enter the classroom constantly thinking about how to best aid a child on her quest to adapt and orient to a new environment


Children have an innate drive to repeat activities until they feel satisfied in their mastery. The youngest children repeat tasks over and over without tiring. The elementary child (6-12 years old) continues to need repetition, but she needs variety in her repetition. The elementary environment caters to this need by offering multiple materials that teach a single concept. For example, children use the checkerboard, the flat bead frame, and the large bead frame to practice long multiplication.


Abstraction is the ability to understand a concept without the aid of physical or  concrete materials. Dr. Montessori observed that humans create what first only exists in their minds. As a result, the Montessori method first exposes children to concepts with the aid of a concrete material, allowing them to explore the concept sensorially before moving to more symbolic representations and, ultimately, abstraction. Moving from concrete to abstract produces a fuller and deeper understanding of a given concept.


Humans are driven to activity which is aided by physical manipulation of our natural environment. Dr. Montessori recognized that the hand and the mind are linked in the pursuit of understanding. Humans possess a proclivity towards work, and we use our hands to achieve our mental and physical ends.


Through manipulation with our hands, humans tend towards exactness, the final human tendency, which can also be described as “self-perfection”. Humans possess the natural desire for precision in their work and we find tremendous satisfaction in giving maximum effort for a worthy product. Guides, aware of  this tendency, frequently ask elementary children if they are doing their best work.

As you consider these universal human tendencies, which ones do you notice most in yourself  and your child? As you become aware of the tendencies operating in your daily life, how can you set up your own environment and schedule to facilitate their expression for you and your child?

Dr. Maria Montessori believed that educators have the responsibility to understand universal human tendencies in order to best guide the child’s self-construction. When we embrace these tendencies in our own environments, we promote the flourishing of each child and help them realize their fullest potential in the world.